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Winkler Generators for Manufacture of Water Gas

Title Page


Section 1
1000kb pdf
Introduction 1
Winkler Generator Installations 3
Historical 3
Characteristics of "Boiling" Beds 6
Description of the Process 6
Oxygen Plants 7
Fuel Sizing and Storage 7
Section 2
1222kb pdf
Properties of Fuel 7
Grates and Generator Base 8
The Fuel Bed 10
Composition of the Blast 11
Secondary Oxygen 12
Generator Brickwork 13
Waste Heat Recovery 13
Section 3
832kb pdf
Dedusting of the Gas 14
Starting Up 17
Instruments and Safety Devices 17
Pressure Survey 18
Section 4
765kb pdf
Output 19
Service Requirements, Efficiences and Balances 20
Material Balance at Zeitz 21
Heat Balance at Zeitz 22
Material Balance at Leuna 23
Heat Balance at Leuna 24
Section 5
815kb pdf
Manufacture of Power Gas 25
Material Balance at Leuna (Power Gas) 26
Heat Balance at Leuna (Power Gas) 27
Manufacture of Ammonia Synthesis Gas 28
Use of Fuels other than Brown Coal 28
Miscellaneous Points of Interest 29
Comparison with other Processes for Making Synthesis Gas 30
Capital Costs 31
Process Labour and Maintenance Costs 31
References 90kb pdf 37


Table I List of known Winkler Installations 94kb pdf 3
Table II Summary of Design of Winkler Generators making Water Gas 95kb pdf 32
Table III Performance of Winkler Generators 321kb pdf 33
Table IV Performance of Winkler Generators making Water Gas from Dry Brown Coal 321 kb pdf 34
Table V Performance of Winkler Generators making Power Gas 73kb pdf 36



Fig. 1 General view of a Brabag plant, believed to be Zeitz; (from Oel u. Kohle) 48kb pdf 6
Fig. 2 View of two generators at Zeitz; (photographed by C.I.O.S. investigators) 53kb pdf 6
Fig. 3 View of Waste Heat Boilers and Multicyclones at Zeitz; (photographed by C.I.O.S. investigators) 54kb pdf 6
Fig. 4 View of lower portions of generator at Böhlen; (photographed by C.I.O.S. investigators) 65kb pdf 6
Fig. 5 Sketch of typical installation 6
Fig. 6 Arrangement of early generator, with traveling grate 8
Fig. 7 Arrangement of early Leuna generator, with bulbous top 65kb pdf 8
Fig. 8 Sketch of grate bars; (from Ref.10) 56kb pdf 8
Fig. 9 Progress of oxygen break through (from Ref.6) 170kb pdf 8
Fig. 10A and 10B Designs of water-cooled nozzles (from Ref.10) 56kb pdf 8
Fig. 11 Typical arrangement of waste heat boiler 76kb pdf 14

Units of Gas Measurements
Throughout this report gas quantities are quoted in Nli3, measured dry at 15°C and 735.5 mms mercury; this is the normal practice at I.G. and BRABAG factories.